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Cocaine is a natural product extracted from the leaves of Erythroxylon coca Lam coca leaves. This tropical shrub is cultivated widely on the Andean ridge in South America and is the only known natural source of cocaine.
Normally produced as the hydrochloride saltit has limited medical use as a topical anaesthetic. The free basesometimes known as crack, is a smokable form of cocaine. Coca leaves have been used as a stimulant by some indigenous people of South America since historical times.
Purified cocaine has been misused as a central nervous system CNS stimulant since the early years Crack rock drug the twentieth century. Cocaine is under international control. Although four pairs of enantiomers are theoretically possible, only one commonly termed l -cocaine occurs naturally. Cocaine is structurally related to atropine hyoscamine and hyoscine scopolaminesubstances with quite different pharmacological properties. Cocaine has a similar psychomotor stimulant effect to that of amphetamine and related compounds.
It increases transmitter concentrations in both the noradrenergic and the dopaminergic synapse and also acts as an anaesthetic agent. Like amphetamine, it produces euphoria, tachycardiahypertension and appetite suppression.
Cocaine has a strong reinforcing action, causing a rapid psychological dependence, an effect even more pronounced in those who smoke cocaine base. The main metabolites are benzoylecgonine, ecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, all of which are inactive. When consumed with alcohol, cocaine also produces the metabolite cocaethylene. Some unchanged cocaine is found in the urine. The plasma half-life of cocaine is 0. The estimated minimal lethal dose is 1.
They are processed into cocaine hydrochloride in clandestine laboratories. The leaves are moistened with lime water or other alkali and extracted with kerosene paraffin. The dissolved cocaine is extracted from the kerosene with sulfuric acid to produce an aqueous solution of cocaine sulfate. This solution is neutralised with lime, causing cocaine base coca paste to precipitate. Coca paste is redissolved in sulfuric acid and potassium permanganate is added to destroy cinnamoylcocaine and other impurities.
The filtered solution is again treated with alkali to precipitate the free base, which is dissolved in acetone or other solvents. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is added to the solution, causing cocaine hydrochloride to settle out as a solid residue. Although various methods exist for the synthesis of cocaine, they are less economic than extraction of the natural product.
Typical precursors include atropine, tropinone and carbomethoxytropinone, none of which is listed in Table 1 of the above-mentioned United Nations Convention. Crack is manufactured from cocaine hydrochloride by one of two main methods: either microwaving a wet mixture with sodium bicarbonate or by adding alkali to a hot saturated solution of cocaine and allowing the denser base to settle and solidify. In illicit use, cocaine is typically snorted insufflatedfollowing which it is absorbed through the nasal mucosa. Ingestion le to loss of activity through enzymic hydrolysis in the gut.
Crack is a smokable form of cocaine. Injection of cocaine is less common. Street terms include coke, snow, charlie and a wide variety of others in use depending on location and setting. The Marquis field test does not form a coloured product with cocaine. A more satisfactory presumptive test is based on either cobalt thiocyanate blue coloration or p -dimethylbenzaldehyde red coloration.
Cocaine also produces the characteristic odour of methyl benzoate when heated with a mixture of methanol and sodium hydroxide solution. The esters and derivatives of ecgonine, which are convertible to ecgonine and cocaine, are also controlled according to that Convention. Solutions of cocaine hydrochloride have limited medical use as Crack rock drug topical anaesthetic for surgical procedures involving the eye, ear, nose and throat.
Prison and drugs in Europe June Wastewater analysis and drugs — a European study May Drug-related deaths and mortality in Europe May An analysis of drugs in used syringes from sentinel European cities February Cooper, D. Grabowski, J. King, L. Clarke's Analysis of Drugs and Poisons3rd edn, Vol. Moffat, A. The following publications have been proposed for further reading by Reitox national focal points. Pascual, F. Nordegren, T.
Johansson, G. Ilse et al. The views expressed in these publications are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the EMCDDA. Home Publications Drug profiles. Cocaine and crack drug profile Cocaine and crack drug profile. This publication provides an overview of current knowledge and the latest developments in the field of drug use and prison in Europe. The report explores in depth the epidemiology of drug use and drug-related problems among the prison population, the available social and health service responses to Focusing on illicit drug use, related harms and drug supply, the report contains a comprehensive set of national data across these themes and key harm reduction interventions.
The project in question analysed wastewater in 82 European cities and towns to explore the drug-taking habits of those who live in them. The This report provides an update on drug-related deaths in Europe based primarily on presentations and discussions held at the meeting of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction EMCDDA expert network on drug-related deaths. The meeting brought together experts and Since earlythe COVID pandemic has had a dramatic impact on the way we live, with European countries having to introduce unprecedented measures to protect public health.
As with all areas of life, drug consumption, related harms Crack rock drug drug markets have been impacted, as have the services Syringes were collected in and from the bins of street automatic The issues selected here have been chosen for their policy relevance and general interest. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of patterns emerging across Europe in the areas of drug supply, illicit drug use and associated public health problems.
National data sets are also provided across these themes and on key harm-reduction interventions. The report is available in English Infographic: polydrug use among clients entering treatment by primary drug in the EU, Norway and Turkey, Infographic: clients entering treatment for cocaine in Europe. Drug seizures at a glance, Cocaine users entering treatment in the EU updated June Cocaine seizures in the EU updated June Cocaine price and purity in the European Union updated June Video: European Drug Report — highlights.
At a glance — estimates of drug use in the European Union updated JuneCrack rock drug
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